Germany marks shame - and golden hour
The anniversary of one of the most shameful chapters of Germany's turbulent history and one of its most euphoric both fall on Sunday, prompting commemorations and celebrations throughout the country.
Chancellor Angela Merkel and Jewish leaders will gather at Germany's biggest synagogue to pay tribute to the victims of the Kristallnacht pogrom of November 9-10, 1938 and to the miraculous rebirth of Jewish life in recent years.
Because it shares the same date, the fall of the Berlin Wall will also be marked and the victims of communist East Germany remembered at low-key events ahead of the 20th anniversary next year.
The leader of the Central Council of Jews, Charlotte Knobloch, said she hoped a reminder of the atrocities 70 years ago would rekindle Germans' commitment to tolerance.
"This important day heavy in symbolism is an opportunity to show that Germany is a diverse and vibrant democracy," said Knobloch, who was six on Kristallnacht.
The pogrom, also known as the Night of Broken Glass, saw Nazi thugs plunder Jewish businesses throughout Germany, torch more than 200 synagogues and round up some 30,000 Jewish men for deportation to concentration camps.
Some 90 Jews were murdered in the orgy of violence, whose pretext was the murder of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris by a student, Herschel Grynspan, who sought revenge for the expulsion of his family from Germany with about 15,000 other Polish Jews.
"From that moment on, Jews knew that those who could must save themselves," said survivor Betty Alsberg, an 88-year-old who now lives in Israel.
The pogrom was a prelude to the Nazis' extermination campaign launched three years later in which they murdered six million Jews.
After national unification in 1990, Germany began accepting Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet states and the country now has one of the fastest growing Jewish communities in the world with some 120,000 members.
The main ceremony will take place at Berlin's Rykestrasse synagogue, which reopened in August 2007 after a major restoration as a defiant symbol of a Jewish revival in the city where the Holocaust was planned.
The 1,200-capacity house of worship was one of the few Jewish institutions in Berlin to survive Kristallnacht.
It was only spared because it was between "Aryan" blocks of flats that might have caught fire had the synagogue been firebombed.
But its precious Torah rolls were damaged and rabbis as well as congregation members were seized and deported to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.
British violinist Daniel Hope will give a memorial concert on Sunday headlined "Do Something!" at Tempelhof Airport, the hub of the Berlin Airlift that closed last month after 85 years.
"'Reichskristallnacht' took place 70 years ago and yet its consequences are still reflected in today's society," said Hope, whose family was forced to flee Berlin and the Nazis.
"Situations that require civil courage, individual or collective, continue to arise, whether it's an individual attack on a defenceless fellow human being or the brutality of groups such as right wing radical skinheads."
In the evening, a German doctors' association will honour Jewish colleagues who were first stripped of their right to practice medicine and later killed at the camps.
At Sachsenhausen, north of Berlin, a guided tour will recount the story of 6,000 Jews interned there after Kristallnacht.
In Munich, where Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels issued the call for the pogrom, the names of 4,587 Holocaust victims who lived in the city will be read out in public.
And two new synagogues will open, in Goettingen, northern Germany, and in the southern city of Loerrach.
P.O. Box 3867
Kigali - RWANDA
Skype ID: kayisa66